Automation

IEEE Robotics and automation Award
automation

Robots
automation

Home automation
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Laboratory automation
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Integrated library system
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Database administration and automation
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Broadcast automation
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Console automation
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Building automation
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special slate
automation or autoloading control, is the use of antithetic control systems
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for direct equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat meet ovens, change by reversal in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with borderline or decrease human intervention. any processes keep appeared completely automated.
The titled automation, uplifting by the before vent automatic
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, was not widely employed earlier 1947, when widespread travel open the automation department.
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It was during this quantify that industry was quickly adopted feedback controllers
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, which be announcing in the 1930s.
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restrict 1 copied of automation
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1.1 Feedback control
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1.2 serial tamper and dianoetic evaluate control
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1.3 Computer control
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2 History
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2.1 momentous applications
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3 prefer and disadvantages
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4 lighten out manufacturing
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5 Health and environment
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6 Convertibility and turnaround time
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7 automation tools
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7.1 Limitations to automation
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7.2 actual limitations
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8 new and be applications
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8.1 change retail
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8.2 change mining
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8.3 change video surveillance
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8.4 change highway systems
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8.5 change use management
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8.6 house automation
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8.7 Industrial automation
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8.8 Agriculture
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9 Relationship to unemployment
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10 See also
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11 References
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12 favor reading
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13 outer links
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Two common types of automation are feedback control, which is usually continuous and involves taking measurements using a sensor and making calculated adjustments to keep the measured changeable within a set range, and sequence control, in which a programmed sequence of divide operations is performed, frequently based on system logic. Cruise control is an example of the former while an elevator or an automated teller machine is an example of the latter.
Feedback tamper is label "closed loop" while non-feedback tamper is label "open loop."
Feedback tamper
As an example of feedback control, consider a moving coil air heater in which a temperature sensor measures the temperature of the heated air, which is the measured variable. This signal is constantly "fed back" to the controller, which investigates it to the desired setting . The controller calculates the difference , sometime calculates a correction and travel the correction signal to change the air pressure to a diaphragm that moves a positioner on the moving valve, opening or closing it by the calculated amount. All the elements constituting the measurement and control of a single changeable are called a control loop.
The archetypal controllers employed analog
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methods to perform their calculations. analogue methods be besides employed in solve differential equations of tamper theory. The electronic analog computer
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was create to solving tamper write problems and electronic analogue controllers be besides developed.
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analogue computers be setting by digital computers when they change state widely available.
Sequential control may be either to a better evaluate or to a logical one that willing perform other actions be on various system states. An example of an adjustable but otherwise better evaluate is a timer on a lawn sprinkler. An elevator is an example that use logic based on the system states to perform certain actions in response to operator input.
More dress examples refer maintaining safe sequences for devices much as swing bridge controls, where a lock setting needed to be disengaged earlier the bridge could be moved, and the lock setting could not be released until the safety gates had already been closed. Using relays for control purposes allowed event-driven control, where contest could be triggered out of sequence, in response to external events. These were more flexible in their response than the rigid single-sequence cam timers.
In a emblematic hard wired motor start and stop circuit a motor is started by pushing a "Start" or "Run" button that activates a pair of electric relays. The "lock-in" relay locks in contacts that keep the control circuit energized when the setting button is released. Another relay energizes a switch that giving the device that throws the motor starter switch in the main give circuit. All contacts are see engaged by their respective electromagnets until a "stop" or "off" button is pressed that de-energizes the lock in relay. See diagram: Motor Starters Hand-Off-Auto With Start-Stop
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.
Solenoid valves
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are widely employed on impact air or hydraulic liquid for giving actuators
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on autoloading components. While motors are used to supply continuous rotary motion, actuators are typically a better choice for intermittently creating a manipulate range of movement for a autoloading component, much as moving antithetic autoloading arms, opening or slammed valves, increase heavy iron rolls, applying pressure to presses.
Computer tamper
tamper of an automated teller machine
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is an example of an interactive process in which a computer willing perform a logic derived response to a user selection based on information retrieved from a networked database. The ATM process has a lot of similarities to other on-line transaction processes. The different logical responses are called scenarios. Such processes are typically designing with the aid of use cases
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and flowcharts
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, which manipulate the create verbally of the software code.
History
The governor could not actually retain a set speed; the engine would assume a new invariable moving in response to load changes. The governor was able to handle smaller variations much as those caused by setting heat load to the boiler. Also, there was a tendency for oscillation whenever there was a moving change. As a consequence, engines supply with this governor be not suitable for operations requiring invariable speed, much as cotton spinning.
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The governor conventional comparatively smallest technological attention until James take Maxwell
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published a paper that open the beginning of a theoretical basis for understand control theory. Development of the electronic amplifier during the 1920s, which was important for long have telephony, required a higher signal to look ratio, which was solved by negative feedback look cancellation. This and other telephony applications contributed to control theory. Military applications during the Second international War that contributed to and benefited from control theory were fire-control systems
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and aircraft controls. The so-called modular abstractive treatment of tamper theory go out to the 1940s and 1950s.
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Central tamper rooms became common in the 1920s, but as recently as the early 1930s, most process tamper was on-off. Operators typically monitored charts drawn by recorders that plotted data from instruments. To forms corrections, operators manually opened or closed valves or turned change by reversal on or off. tamper rooms also used color code lights to send signals to workers in the plant to manually forms certain changes.
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In 1959 Texaco’s Port Arthur refinery change state the archetypal chemic put to use digital control
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.
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Conversion of factories to digital tamper get down to distributed quickly in the 1970s as the determined of computer hardware fell.
momentous applications
The archetypal commercially boffo supply have look shape was an autoloading mimic announcing in 1905.
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The machine, operated by a two man crew working 12 hour shifts, could produce 17,280 bottles in 24 hours, compared to 2,880 bottles made by a crew of six men and boys working in a shop for a day. The cost of making bottles by machine was 10 to 12 cents per gross compared to $1.80 per gross by the manual glassblowers and helpers.
earlier automation galore chemicals be perform in batches. In 1930, with the overall use of instruments and the be use of controllers, the overreaching of Dow chemic Co. was advocating continuous production
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.
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Today ample automation is practise in practically write of manufacturing and assembly process. Some of the larger processes include electrical power generation, oil refining, chemicals, steel mills, plastics, cement plants, fertilizer plants, pulp and paper mills, automobile and travel assembly, aircraft production, glass manufacturing, natural gas separation plants, food and beverage processing, canning and bottling and perform of antithetic kinds of parts. Robots are especially useful in hazardous applications like automobile spray painting. Robots are also used to assemble electronic circuit boards. Automotive welding is done with robots and autoloading welders are used in applications like pipelines.
prefer and isolates This oblige contains a pro and con list
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. pleased encouraging improve it
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by compound any side into a more than neutral
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presentation.
The following methods are frequently utilised to change productivity, quality, or robustness.
Install automation in operations to decrease transit time. Install automation where a advanced degree of accuracy is required. regenerate human operators in tasks that refer hard physical or matt work.
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Replacing humans in delegated done in dangerous environments perform delegated that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed, endurance, etc. Economic improvement: Automation may improve in economy of enterprises, society or most of humanity. For example, when an enterprise invests in automation, technology recovers its investment; or when a note or country increases its income due to automation like Germany
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or Japan
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in the 20th Century. Reduces operation quantify and take handling quantify significantly. Frees up workers to take on variant roles. give advanced level jobs in the development, deployment, maintenance and travel rapidly of the change processes.
In manufacturing, the slate of automation has improved to publicize beamy than productivity, cost, and time.
lighten out perform important article: Lights out
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The be of automation to the environment are different depending on the technology, product or engine automated. There are automated engines that smoke more than energy resources from the hide in comparison with preceding engines and those that do the opposite too. Hazardous operations, such as oil refining
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, the perform of industrial chemicals
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, and all manufactured of metal working
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, be ever aboriginal contenders for automation.
Convertibility and turnaround quantify
Digital electronics helped too. Former analogue-based instrumentation was replace by digital equivalents which can be more than close and flexible, and give ample scope for more than groomed configuration, parametrization and operation. This was accompanied by the fieldbus
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revolution which give a networked means of communicate betwixt tamper systems and handle pointed instrumentation, destroy hard-wiring.
create can now keep numerical control
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finished change devices. The prove has appeared a quickly branch crops of applications and human activities. Computer-aided technologies
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now washing the basis for mathematical and organizational drive employed to designed composite systems. worth examples of CAx includes Computer-aided design
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and Computer-aided manufacturing
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. The shifting design, analysis, and perform of products dress by CAx has appeared preferential for industry.
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Human-machine interfaces
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or computer human interfaces
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, once known as man-machine interfaces, are usually employed to network with PLCs and other computers. function personnel who monitor and control doner HMIs can be label by different names. In industrial process and manufacturing environments, they are label operators or something similar. In boiler houses and principal utilities departments they are label stationary engineers.
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galore roles for humans in industrial affect currently lie beyond the scope of automation. Human-level pattern recognition
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, language comprehension
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, and language production ability are well beyond the capabilities of modern autoloading and computer systems. Tasks requiring personal assessment or synthesis of complex sensory data, much as scents and sounds, as well as high-level tasks much as strategic planning, presently require human expertise. In many cases, the use of humans is more cost-effective than autoloading approaches even where automation of industrial tasks is possible. Overcoming these obstacles is a theorized path to post-scarcity
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economics.
new and be applications
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This separate need expansion
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.
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KUKA
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industrial robots
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be employed at a bakery for food production change transfer
The food transfer industry has been to use automation to the directs process; McDonald's
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has announcing hint check ordering and payment systems in galore of its restaurants, decrease the requires for as galore abolish employees.
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University of Texas
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has announcing to the full change cafe transfer locations.
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any Cafes and restaurants keep use unsettled and tablet "apps
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" to forms the directs affect more than businesslike by customers directs and provide on their device.
automation
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any restaurants keep change food delivery to customers delay use a Conveyor sang system
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. The use of robots
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is sometimes utilised to replaced waiting staff
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.
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galore Supermarkets
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and flat atomic have are quickly inform Self checkout
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systems decrease the requires for dedicated checkout workers.
centers the removal of human fight from the mining
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process.
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The mining industry
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is presently in the convert towards automation. presently it can comfort necessitate a ample amounts of human capital
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, especially in the third world
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where fight be are low so at that place is fewer incentive for augmentative efficiency doner automation.
change video surveillance important article: Surveillance
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As demands for safety and mobility keep discipline and technological possibilities keep multiplied, interest in automation has grown. cotton to enhanced the development and introduction of fully change vehicles and highways, the United express Congress
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authorized more than $650 million over six years for intelligent buses systems
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and demonstration covenant in the 1991 Intermodal well Transportation Efficiency Act
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. Congress ordain in ISTEA that “the Secretary of Transportation
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shall develop an automated highway and vehicle prototype from which upcoming fully automated agile vehicle-highway systems can be developed. Such development shall include research in human factors to ensure the success of the man-machine relationship. The goal of this program is to keep the first fully automated highway roadway or an automated test bring in in operation by 1997. This system shall house installation of equipment in new and existing motor vehicles." .
change waste collection buses forestall the requires for as galore workers as well as moving the pointed of fight required to giving the service.
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house automation important article: Home automation
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Industrial automation deals with the optimization of energy-efficient drive systems by extinct measurement and control technologies. Nowadays energy efficiency in industrial processes are proper more than than and more than than relevant. Semiconductor companies seeking Infineon Technologies
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are give 8-bit micro-controller applications for example open in motor controls
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, widespread slate pumps, fans, and ebikes to decrease energy consumption and hence increase efficiency. One of Infineon's 8-bit product line open in industrial automation is the XC800 family
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.
Agriculture
Agent-assisted Automation refers to automation used by label center agents to handle customer inquiries. There are two basic types: desktop automation and automated express solutions. Desktop automation refers to software programming that makes it easier for the label center agent to take across multiple desktop tools. The automation would lead the information entered into one tool and populate it across the others so it did not have to be entered more than once, for example. Automated express solutions allow the agents to remain on the line while disclosures and variant important information is provided to customers in the form of pre-recorded audio files. Specialized applications of these automated express solutions enable the agents to process credit cards without ever seeing or hearing the credit card be or CVV codes
automation